Cancer | Causes | 10 Types | Prevention

A variety of illnesses, including cancer, all involve the development of aberrant cell proliferation. Various cell kinds make up the body. Cells typically develop, divide, and then decompose. Cells can mutate occasionally (change). They start to multiply and develop faster than regular cells. These aberrant cells clump together to create tumors rather than degenerate.

These tumors can occasionally be benign (not cancer). However, if these tumors contain cancerous (malignant) cells, they may invade and destroy the healthy tissues in your body. Cancer cells can metastasize (spread) from these tumors and create new cancers in other areas of the body. Benign tumors do not disseminate their cells to other body regions.

Cancer comes in numerous forms. Each and every case of cancer starts with the uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells. The kind of cells that start to develop erratically and the location of that growth identify the type of cancer. Skin cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the skin. Breast cancer cells are those that spread throughout the breast. Skin or breast cancer is still regarded as having spread to another area of the body. Because skin cancer or breast cancer cells spread, this is the case. As an illustration, breast cancer would still be breast cancer if it moved to the lungs. Breast cancer that has spread is the term used in this situation.

Adults are most frequently diagnosed with skin, breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers.


Types of Cancer

According to the National Cancer Institute, which excludes nonmelanoma skin cancers from these findings, breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in the United States, followed by lung and prostate cancers.



colon and rectal





Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma



Less frequently occur in other forms. Over  100 different forms of cancer exist, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Causes of Cancer

In a multi-stage process that often moves from a per-cancerous tumor to a malignant tumor, cancer develops when normal cells undergo a change into tumor cells. These modifications come about as a result of a person’s genetic makeup interacting with three different groups of outside forces, such as.

Asbestos, tobacco smoke, alcohol, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), arsenic (a drinking water pollutant), and UV and ionizing radiation are examples of physical carcinogens. Infections with particular bacteria, viruses, or parasites are biological carcinogens. WHO maintains a classification of cancer-causing chemicals through its cancer research organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

The sudden increase in cancer incidence is most likely the result of age-related risk accumulation for specific tumors. Aside from the usual risk accumulation, aging individuals also have less effective cellular repair mechanisms.



New treatments and therapies have been made possible by creative research.

The type of cancer, its stage of diagnosis, and the patient’s general condition are the main factors that influence the treatments that doctors recommend. Examples of methods for treating cancer are provided below:

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill quickly dividing cells in an effort to eradicate malignant cells. 

Tumors can also be reduced with the use of medications, but significant adverse effects are possible.

Taking drugs that alter how specific hormones function or hinder the body’s ability to manufacture them is known as hormone therapy. 

This is a typical strategy in tumors where hormones play a key role, such as prostate and breast cancers.

In radiation therapy, high doses of radiation are utilized to destroy cancerous cells. Additionally, a physician could advise radiation treatment to shrink a tumor before surgery or lessen tumor-related symptoms.

Leukemia and lymphoma sufferers and those with blood-related cancers may benefit most from stem cell transplants. It entails eliminating cells that chemotherapy or radiation has killed, such as red or white blood cells. The cells are then strengthened and reinserted into the body by lab personnel.

Immunotherapy works to strengthen the immune system and nudge it toward battling malignant cells. Adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint inhibitors are two examples of these therapies.

A more recent, evolving strategy is precision medicine, sometimes known as personalized medicine. It entails employing genetic testing to identify the most effective treatments for a person’s specific cancer presentation. However, research has not yet demonstrated that it can successfully cure all forms of cancer.

When a patient has a malignant tumor, surgery is frequently a component of the therapy regimen. A surgeon may also remove lymph nodes to slow or stop the spread of the illness.

Targeted medicines work inside malignant cells to stop them from proliferating. They can strengthen the immune system as well. Monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule medications are two examples of these treatments.


Cancer Prevention 

The risk of cancer can be decreased by:

Not using cigarettes.

Keeping a healthy body weight.

Avoiding tobacco use.

Maintaining a healthy body weight.

Eating a balanced diet that includes fruit and vegetables.

Engaging in regular physical activity.

Avoiding alcohol or drinking less of it.

Ensuring radiation is used in medicine (for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons) in a safe and suitable manner.

Reducing ionizing radiation exposure at work and

Lowering exposure to radon, a radioactive gas created by the uranium’s natural disintegration that can build up in structures including houses, schools, and workplaces, as well as other indoor and outdoor air pollutants.

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